Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Sejarah Windows


Microsoft Windows atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Windows adalah keluarga sistem operasi. yang dikembangkan oleh Microsoft, dengan menggunakan antarmuka pengguna grafis.




Sistem operasi Windows telah berevolusi dari MS-DOS, sebuah sistem operasi yang berbasis modus teks dan command-line. Windows versi pertama, Windows Graphic Environment 1.0 pertama kali diperkenalkan pada 10 November 1983, tetapi baru keluar pasar pada bulan November tahun 1985, yang dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan komputer dengan tampilan bergambar. Windows 1.0 merupakan perangkat lunak 16-bit tambahan (bukan merupakan sistem operasi) yang berjalan di atas MS-DOS (dan beberapa varian dari MS-DOS), sehingga ia tidak akan dapat berjalan tanpa adanya sistem operasi DOS. Versi 2.x, versi 3.x juga sama. Beberapa versi terakhir dari Windows (dimulai dari versi 4.0 dan Windows NT 3.1) merupakan sistem operasi mandiri yang tidak lagi bergantung kepada sistem operasi MS-DOS. Microsoft Windows kemudian bisa berkembang dan dapat menguasai penggunaan sistem operasi hingga mencapai 90%.


1. Sejarah Singkat


Dimulai dari DosShell for DOS 6 buatan Microsoft dan inginnya Microsoft bersaing terhadap larisnya penjualan Apple Macintosh yang menggunakan GUI, Microsoft menciptakan Windows 1.0 Nama ini berasal dari kelatahan karyawan Microsoft yang menyebut nama aplikasi tersebut sebagai Program Windows (Jendela Program). Windows versi 2 adalah versi Windows pertama yang bisa diinstal program. Satu-satunya program yang bisa ditambahkan adalah Microsoft Word versi 1. Windows versi 3 menjanjikan aplikasi tambahan yang lebih banyak, kelengkapan penggunaan, kecantikan user interface atau antarmuka dan mudahnya konfigurasi. Windows versi 3.1 adalah versi Windows yang bisa mengoptimalisasi penggunaannya pada prosesor 32-bit Intel 80386 ke atas. Windows versi 3.11 adalah versi Windows terakhir sebelum era Start Menu. Windows 3.11 pun adalah versi Windows pertama yang mendukung networking/jaringan. Versi Hibrida dapat dijalankan tanpa MS-DOS. Versi Hibrida tersebut menginstalasi dirinya sendiri dengan DOS 7. Tidak seperti Windows versi 16-bit yang merupakan shell yang harus diinstalasi melalui DOS terlebih dahulu. Aplikasinya pun berbeda. Meskipun Windows 9X dapat menjalankan aplikasi Windows 16-bit, namun Windows 9X memiliki grade aplikasi sendiri - X86-32, Windows 9X sangat terkenal dengan BSOD (Blue Screen of Death).

2. Versi-versi Windows


Sudah dirilis

1. 16-bit, berjalan di atas MS-DOS
  • 1985 November - Windows 1.0
  • 1987 9 Desember - Windows 2.0
  • 1990 22 Mei - Windows 3.0
  • 1992 Agustus - Windows 3.1
  • 1992 Oktober - Windows for Workgroups 3.1
  • 1993 November - Windows for Workgroups 3.11 (Versi terakhir tanpa Menu Mulai)
2. Hibrida (16-bit/32-bit), berjalan tanpa MS-DOS (meski tidak sepenuhnya)
  • 1995 24 Agustus - Windows 95 (Versi: 4.00.950) (Versi pertama dengan Menu Mulai)
  • 1998 25 Juni - Windows 98 (Versi: 4.1.1998)
  • 1999 5 Mei - Windows 98 Second Edition (Versi: 4.1.2222)
  • 2000 - Windows Millennium Edition (Me) (Versi: 4.9.3000)
3. Berbasis kernel Windows NT
  • 1993 Agustus - Windows NT 3.1
  • 1994 September - Windows NT 3.5
  • 1995 Juni - Windows NT 3.51
  • 1996 29 Juli - Windows NT 4.0 (Versi 4.0.1381)
  • 2000 17 Februari - Windows 2000 (Versi: NT 5.0.2195)
  • 2001 - Windows XP (Versi: NT 5.1.2600)
  • 2003 - Windows Server 2003 (Versi: NT 5.2.3790)
  • 2006 - Windows Vista (Versi 6.0 Build 6000)
  • 2007 - Windows Home Server (Versi 6.0.1800.24)
  • 2008 - Windows Server 2008 (Versi 6.0.6001)
  • 2009 22 Oktober - Windows 7 (Versi 6.1 Build 7600) (Versi terakhir dengan Menu Mulai)
  • 2009 22 Oktober - Windows Server 2008 R2 (Versi 6.1.7600)
  • 2012 4 September - Windows Server 2012 (Versi 6.2 Build 9200)
  • 2012 26 Oktober - Windows 8 (Versi 6.2 Build 9200) (Versi pertama dengan Layar Mulai)
  • 2013 18 Oktober - Windows 8.1 (Versi 6.3 Build 9600) (Versi pertama dengan Tombol Mulai yang dimodifikasi)
  • 2013 18 Oktober - Windows Server 2012 R2 (Versi 6.3 Build 9600)
Akan rilis

  • Akhir 2015 - Windows 10. 
Selama pengembangan dikenal dengan nama sandi Threshold dan dirumorkan sebagai Windows 9. (Versi 6.4 Build 9841 (Pratayang Teknis)) (Versi Pratayang Teknis-nya diresmikan pada tanggal 1 Oktober 2014) (Versi pertama dengan Menu Mulai yang dimodifikasi)

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